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Adenosine Triphosphate ATP Powder CAS 56-65-5

 

Adenosine triphosphate – ATP powder
Alias: Adenosine-5′-Triphosphate
CAS No.:56-65-5
MF:C10H16N5O13P3
Molecular Weight: 507.184/mol
EINECS: 200-283-2
Apperence: white fine powder
Shelf life: 2 Years

 

Adenosine Description:

 

Adenosine Triphosphate plays an important role in cell biology as a coenzyme, is the energy currency of life. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is chemically classified as a nucleoside triphosphate. Its primary biological use is as a coenzyme in various processes involving the transfer of chemical energy. All organisms use ATP, although the specific mechanisms vary greatly.
ATP is generally biosynthesized by adding three phosphate groups to the purine nucleoside adenosine. The phosphate donors in these reactions are usually adenosine monophosphate (AMP) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP), although other compounds may also donate phosphate to make ATP. These reactions also require a catalyst such as ATP synthase. The most common methods for animals to biosynthesize ATP are oxidative phosphorylation and substrate-level phosphorylation. Plants use photophosphorylation to biosynthesize ATP as part of photosynthesis.

ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) supplements have been shown to increase overall energy levels, reduce fatigue and support cardiovascular health to the overall benefit of the aging process. Swanson offers Maximum Strength Peak ATP 400, which can elevate the body’s intracellular and extracellular ATP levels, making it effective for a variety of physiological functions.

Athletes are one of the groups likely to benefit from ATP supplements, especially those who play sports involving short, quick movements. These sports include sprinting, weightlifting, football, hockey, volleyball and tennis. You may also need ATP if you have damage to the small intestines, especially when it is caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Additional conditions that may benefit from ATP include the discomfort that’s common while recovering from knee surgery.

 

Adenosine Function:

 

AMP is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction, such as transferring into cells the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot pass through the plasma membrane. It is also involved in the activation of protein kinases. In addition, cAMP binds to and regulates the function of ion channels such as the HCN channels and a few other cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins such as Epac1 and RAPGEF2

cAMP and its associated kinases function in several biochemical processes, including the regulation of glycogen, sugar, and lipid metabolism.
In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase). PKA is normally inactive as a tetrameric holoenzyme, consisting of two catalytic and two regulatory units (C2R2), with the regulatory units blocking the catalytic centers of the catalytic units.
Cyclic AMP binds to specific locations on the regulatory units of the protein kinase, and causes dissociation between the regulatory and catalytic subunits, thus enabling those catalytic units to phosphorylate substrate proteins.

The active subunits catalyze the transfer of phosphate from ATP to specific serine or threonine residues of protein substrates. The phosphorylated proteins may act directly on the cell’s ion channels, or may become activated or inhibited enzymes. Protein kinase A can also phosphorylate specific proteins that bind to promoter regions of DNA, causing increases in transcription. Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, are not cAMP-dependent.
Further effects mainly depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell.
Still, there are some minor PKA-independent functions of cAMP, e.g., activation of calcium channels, providing a minor pathway by which growth hormone-releasing hormone causes a release of growth hormone.
However, the view that the majority of the effects of cAMP are controlled by PKA is an outdated one. In 1998 a family of cAMP-sensitive proteins with guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity was discovered. These are termed Exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epac) and the family comprises Epac1 and Epac2.[citation needed] The mechanism of activation is similar to that of PKA: the GEF domain is usually masked by the N-terminal region containing the cAMP binding domain. When cAMP binds, the domain dissociates and exposes the now-active GEF domain, allowing Epac to activate small Ras-like GTPase proteins, such as Rap1.

 

Adenosine Dosage:

 

The recommended Adenosine injection dose is 0.14 mg/kg/min infused over six minutes (total dose of 0.84 mg/kg) (Table 1).

Administer Adenosine injection only as a continuous peripheral intravenous infusion

Inject Thallium-201 at the midpoint of the Adenosine injection infusion (i.e., after the first three minutes of Adenosine injection)

Thallium-201 is physically compatible with Adenosine injection and may be injected directly into the Adenosine injection infusion set

Inject Thallium-201 as close to the venous access as possible to prevent an inadvertent increase in the dose of Adenosine injection (the contents of the intravenous tubing) being administered
Visually inspect Adenosine injection for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Do not administer Adenosine injection if it contains particulate matter or is discolored.
There are no data on the safety or efficacy of alternative Adenosine injection infusion protocols. The safety and efficacy of Adenosine injection administered by the intracoronary route have not been established.

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